Thursday, 21 December 2017


Any Bengali starts his tour in general with three tourist spots, namely Darjeeling, Puri and Digha. The history of Darjeeling and Puri is recorded time and again by European and Indian scholars. But though Digha is an equally popular place seldom we got any record about its history.

There is one colonial structure within Digha - the Guest House of State Electricity Board. This is a two storied building with a lush green lawn that holds the key to the history of this coastal tourist spot. Its pre-independence name was Runswick House, property of one English family having title Snaith.

John Frank Snaith.
Picture courtesy : Mr. Surath Maity.

Within this green carpet a small garden is surrounds a milky white epitaph, It states:

In affectionate memory of John Franc Snaith. The First Resident of Digha
Born At Middlesbourough, England
14th August 1882 and died at Digha
On 18th December 1964.

The Colonial British Rulers throughout eighteenth century searched some tourist spots within their Indian domain for refreshment from madding crowd. These spots as well served as sanatoria against a few tropical ailments. With this notion the Himalayan terrain of Shimla and Darjeeling became popular hill resorts.

Similarly, Warren Hasting, the first Viceroy and Governor General of India found a brilliant sea spot at Beercool, near Contai (today’s Kanthi) in the eighties of eighteenth century. The blue sea having a spacious sandy sea-beach attracted Hastings. The nearby mangrove forest was paradise for hunting. As per his note – It is the Brighton of East. This Beercool is today’s Digha. One of the earliest English newspapers published from Calcutta, Hicky’s Gazette on 19th May 1780 wrote:
 “ We are informed that the following persons of figure and consequence arrived in Beercool for the benefit of their health from Calcutta. Henry Great esq, Major Camac, Dr Allen, Captain Kilparick of 31st legion……….. And we have the pleasure to assure the friends of honorable party and the public in general that they have received the most essential benefit from the salubrious air of the admirable spot, which we have no doubt will make the place a fashionable resort.”

Hastings made this beach popular during his service life in Kolkata. It is recorded in history that the entire Midnapore District was gifted to East India Company by Bengal Nawab Mir Kashim as a token of gratitude. British East India Company‘s Calcutta administration was instrumental for changing the nawabship of Bengal in favour of Mir Kashim from Mirjafar in 1760. Hastings became the administrative head of Calcutta zone since 1763. Hence he had repeated exclusive tour of the coastal area adjacent to Bengal Orissa border; may be one of these tours he had found Beercool.  In one of his letters to Mrs. Hastings he had declared (Reference- The Letters of Warren Hastings to his Wife by Sydney C Greyer):
Beercool was the sanitarium, the Brighton of East. ….. and the news paper and council’s records mentioned constantly that so-and-so gone to Beercool for his health……..It  already has advantage of beach which is free from shark and all noxious animals except crabs & there is proposal to erect convenient apartments for the reception of the nobility and the gentry and organize entertainment.

Hastings had erected his own bunglow at Beercool. But after Hastings, for the time being Beercool had not continued its famed status within the European nobility. Firstly the transportation to the place was quite tiresome due to non availability of proper roads & bridges over numerous water bodies of lower Bengal. The other problem was the repeated coastal cyclone, against which the structure erected at shore became flimsy.

In 1796 when Jorge Chapman visited the site it contained some ruins of the structure. Afterwards in 1823 when another party visited Digha, it looked like a deserted site having thick bushes, an ideal ecology for wild dogs and reptiles. Hastings' “Brighton of the East” continued in this pathetic condition for another century.

Old Runswick House
Picture courtesy : Mr. Surath Maity.

Hamilton & Company of Kolkata became an ultimate Jewelry House for all big shots of India during late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The owner of this heritage business was a typical aristocrat British – John Snaith, bachelor, sensible, romantic and keen nature lover. Many of his distinguish clients, the landlords of Bengal, business tycoons and Rajas being well aware of his travelling zeal used to invite him to some forlorn spots.


Gramophone Box

Probably one of the famous “Baro Bhuians” of Bengal, landlord of Balishahi,a client of Hamilton, elaborated the nature lover Snaith about the sea beach of Beercool near Contai. John Snaith was already familiar with the name of Beercool from the age old publications. He wanted to visit Beercool at once. John Snaith reached Contai from Belda and from there to the village Beercool on elephant in 1921. The waves of Blue Sea and golden long beach mesmerized John Snaith. The location of the sea was almost 4km away from today’s modern Digha.

Once back to Calcutta, John Snaith wanted to acquire land in Digha. His tenacity paid a dividend; Government allotted eleven and half acres of land at Digha. Mr. H.A. Cloy was appointed as an architect to construct a mansion at Digha- Runswick House. Building material were mobilized through sea route. Bricks were locally manufactured. Snaith used to visit Digha by his own two-seater plane, the hard sand of sea-beach acted as the runway.

Time was ticking, Snaith was not feeling the same urge for day to day jewelry business, he had decided to keep the business under supervision of his nephew Charles Andrew Flanigan and made Digha his dwelling place.

Within his Digha property Snaith commenced some firming by his people, put up exclusive generator set furnished the house as per his fine test. Flanigan used to bring necessary household goods and essentials during the weekend by air. He used to fly in a two-seater plane every week from Behala Flying Club. Sometimes a few  friends used to visit Snaith. Snaith was always ready with good food and fine wine. His Christmas party at Digha was quite an affair.

Charles Andrew Flanigan
Picture courtesy : Mr. Surath Maity.

At times Flanigan used to bring children from Barisha orphanage. The garden of the Ranswick house became busy with the sports, fancy dress competition and sit and drawing by those children. During his residency at Digha, Snaith was trying his level best to make the spot popular. His close friend the Raja of Narajole made a beautiful mansion along with a school at Digha. Tirelessly Snaith approached Indian Government to promote Digha as a tourist spot. The British Government at that time was bogged down to resist the Indian Independence movement. For this the promotion of a tourist spot never became a Government priority till 1947.

The persistence of Snaith had an impact on the first Chief Minister of West Bengal, Sree Bidhan Chandra Roy. Slowly development took place at Digha. The construction of the cheap canteen, Bay Cafeteria, Sarada Boarding and a Government Tourist Lodge commenced. From sixties it became a tourist spot. With time, Digha become so dear to Snaith he had almost forgotten his birth-place Middilesbrough, England. He had decided a green porch within his property where the first sunlight used to shine every day as his last resting place. On 18th December, 1964, when the sea breeze of Bay of Bengal touched the Runswick House, his owner John Snaith travelled to eternity.

Afterwards, Flanigan continued to supervise his uncle’s property, during his week-end air visits to Digha. Some of the friends used to visit the Ranswick House during Flanigan’s weekly visits. But time was changing. All white Europeans were leaving India. During seventies Flanigan also followed their chore, the ownership of Ranswick House transferred to the State Electrity Board against one lakh rupee.

In today’s Digha we have one of widest, hard plain sea-beachs of the world, a brilliant Science Museum is established at New Digha, Amaravati lake and Snake Garden, as well as a research centre of West Bengal Fisheries at Junput, another marvelous beach Mardarmoni just 12 km away. The State Government had taken lot of initiative to promote Digha as a class tourist spot.

People in Bengal find Digha every year with some new features but seldom have  visited the last resting place of John Snaith, the man whose relentless persuasion established Digha as a tourist spot. British had gone but we have a public amnesia against this gentleman.

Picture courtesy : Mr. Surath Maity.

Only one Bengali is the exception, he remembers the birthday of his former employer Late Mr. John Snaith on every 14th of August inside the WBSEDCL Guest House by lighting a candle. This gentleman is a acting caretaker of WBSEDCL Guest House Shri Surath Maity. He is the only available missing link in between Snaith's Digha and today's most popular sea beach of Bengal. Anyone who had researched on Runswick House got invaluable authentic inputs from this gentleman.

Mr. Surath Maity.
Care-taker of Ranswick House.

Mr. Maity urges wholeheartedly that the property of his former employer which is currently a VVIP's resort under the patronage of State Government further turns into a heritage property; with that wish he light the candle every twenty four hours before our Independence day. We do not know whether Government will treat this property to be classified as a heritage one or not but we are sure that on 15th August Digha beach would be immensely crowded. Can this crowd observe silence for a single minute in the memory of the modern Digha's founder. British have departed seventy years back but the memory of Jhon Snaith should not go in oblivion - we should not have a public amnesia against that remarkable soul.

Sources : 
     1. An article published in "The Stasman" on 19th October,1997.,
         under  the heading " Rediscovering Digha"
         written by Apala Barat.
     2. An article published in "The Hindustan Times" on 1st. June,2014.,
         under the heading "On the waterfront"
         written by Amitava Banerjee.
     3. Bengal District Gazetteers. Midnapore- South Asia Archive. 

Research :  Abhijnan Basu, Sudip Ghosh.

Picture Courtesy : Sudip Ghosh, Santanu Roy. 

Friday, 8 September 2017


Akshaya Kumar Maitreya Museum was set up in the University of North Bengal on February 1962. Its first secretary was Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, professor and ancient Indian history stalwart in North Bengal. Long back in February 1965, the museum was opened for only those who expressed interest in historical research. However it was opened for general public on 28th December 2006 after it was shifted to the new building which was inaugurated by Buddhadeb Bhattacharya.

Visnu : Greyish black stone
12th Century A.D. Find spot Rajshahi, 
S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

Manasa: black stone: 
12th Century A.D.Find spot:Beyatta,
Uttar Dinajpur.Donor:
 Bimal Chandra Mondal

Surya:Black basalt.11th Century A.D.
Find spot: Bhitargar,Jalpaiguri.
Donor: Nirmal Ch.Choudhury,Jalpaiguri.

Nrsimhavatara of Vishnu: Black Basalt.
11th-12th Century A.D. Find spot: Mustaphapur,
Gangarampur, D. Dinajpur.Donor N.C.Choudhury

Figure of an ascetic(Saivite?) Black basalt
11th-12th Century A.D Nayanpur, 
Gangarampur. D. Dinajpur. Donor N.C.Choudhury

In the beginning, there were only a handful of artifacts confined to a small room adjacent to the history department of the North Bengal University. Professor P. K. Bhattacharya made efforts to expand the museum’s collections by going around the districts of North Bengal at his own expense, visiting historical sites like Baneswar, Pundibari, Gosanimari all with a desire to collect relics for the museum.

Navagraha Panel: Black stone, 10th.Century A.D.
Chalukyan Sculpture, Find spot, Rajsahi,Bangladesh
Donor. S.P. Roychoudhury.

Stela of an image in black stone
Find spot :Kaliaganj, U.Dinajpur.
Donor. Kalpana Banerjee, U.Dinajpur.

Nandi, Blank stone,12 Century AD
Find spot: Patkata Kotoyali, Jalpaiguri.
Donor. N.C.Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

Danapati; Black Basalt
Find spot: Rajganj, Jalpaiguri
Donor. N.C.Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

Camunda; Black Basalt,11th Century A.D.
Collected from : Customs, Siliguri Division.
Find spot : Bedkandi, Belakoba, Jalpaiguri.

The name Akshaya Kumar Maitreya Museum was considered on the suggestion of Sri Nirmal Chandra Choudhuri who donated his personal collections for the good of the museum . “ Akshaya Kumar Maitreya (1861-1930) a lawyer, historian and a social worker, was a close friend of Rabindranath Tagore.  Akshaya Kumar Maitreya contributed to different disciplines of human knowledge, especially history, literature, language, culture, art and archaeology  of Bengal.

Surya, on a pilaster(broken): Black stone
7th-8th Century A.D. Find spot: Adina, Malda.
Donor : N.C. Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

Brahma(Middle portion broken): Black stone
12th Century A.D. Find spot: Rajshasi, Bangladesh.
Donor: S. P. Roy Chowdhury, Malda.

Visnu: Greyish Black basalt: 12th Century A.D.
Find spot. Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Donor :  S. P. Roy Chowdhury, Malda.

Apsara: Grey Sand stone: 12th Century A.D.
Bangarh, Dakshin Dinajpur.
Donor : N.C.Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

Nrsimhavatara Vishnu 12th. Century A.D.
Find spot: Mustaphapur, P.S. Gangarampur.
Donor : S. P. Roy Chowdhury, Malda.

His sagacity probably influenced Kumar Sarat Chandra Roy ( Jamindar of Dighapatiya) and a school teacher named Ramaprasad Chanda, who come together  for their common interest in research and antiquarian studies. They established The Barendra Research Society and Barendra Research Museum for the promotion of higher studies and research in the glorious past of Bengal. They also established the Rajshahi Museum in April, 1910 (now the Research Museum).

Balarama: 18th Century A.D.
Collected from Khalia Rajbari Temple
Faridpur, Bangladesh. Donor. S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

Matsya-vatara: 18th Century A.D.
Collected from Khalia Rajbari Temple
Faridpur, Bangladesh. Donor. S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

Varasa-vatara: 18th Century A.D.
Collected from Khalia Rajbari Temple
Faridpur, Bangladesh. Donor. S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

Nrsimhavatara-vatara: 18th Century A.D.
Collected from Khalia Rajbari Temple,
Faridpur,Bangladesh. Donor .S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

“Akshaya Kumar Maitreya started his education at Kumarkhali under exemplary Harinath Majumder,better known as “Kagal Harinath” for his teaching. He passed the entrance examination in 1878, FA in 1980 from Rajshahi College and BA in 1883 from Presidency College, and BL in 1885 from Rajshahi college. He joined the Rajshahi Bar in the same year. Akshaya Kumar Maitreya’s interest in his profession was more than skin deep. His passion was History and research and he dedicated his whole life to them.

Kurma-vatara: 18th Century A.D.
Collected from Khalia Rajbari Temple
Faridpur, Bangladesh. Donor. S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

A person riding a peacock
18th-`19th Century A.D.
 Donor. S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

Matsya-vatara: 18th Century A.D.
Collected from Khalia Rajbari Temple
Faridpur, Bangladesh. Donor. S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

Collected from Ghosh-Pukur, Near Siliguri.

When as a student of first Arts class he studied Macaulay’s Clive and Hastings ; he found it an utter subversion of truth. He decided to produce a series of short historical sketches and monographs with a view to awakening the interest of his countrymen in their own history and culture. Hence he collected source materials , both literary and archaeological, for a long period. He acquired profound and authoritative knowledge of ancient and medieval history, and of the art and iconography of Bengal.

Terracotta miscellaneous objects.
Harinarayanpur, 24- Parganas.
Donor: Pranab Kr. Chatterjee.Durgapur.

Terracotta miscellaneous objects.
Harinarayanpur, 24- Parganas.
Donor: Pranab Kr. Chatterjee.Durgapur.

Terracotta miscellaneous objects.
Harinarayanpur, 24- Parganas.
Donor: Pranab Kr. Chatterjee.Durgapur.

Akshaya Kumar Maitreya produced a series of historical monographs under the title of “Aitisihik Chitra” (1899) and introduced “Sirajuddaula”(1898) and “Mir Qasim”(1906), “Rani Bhabani” (1898), “Firingi Banik”(1922) and a host of other historical figures in Bengal. He produced and published numerous dissertations on the political and cultural history of Bengal, on places of historical importance and on art and iconography. In “Gourlekhamala”, published in 1912 , he edited a few copper plates and inscriptions, and provides their Bangla translations. This opened up new avenues of historical research in Bengal.” (Banglapedia)*

Ardhanarisvara :Octo-alloy; 12th Century A.D.
Find spot: Kuchlibari, Mekliganj, Cooch Behar.
Matsya-vatara: 18th Century A.D.
Collected from Khalia Rajbari Temple
Faridpur, Bangladesh. Donor. S.P.Roy Chowdhury.

Ambika, Octo-alloy, 10th Century A.D.
Find spot : Paharpur, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
N.C. Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

Siva-Sakti(Yab-yum pose), Octo-alloy
12th Century A.D. Find Spot. Mathabhanga,
Cooch Behar, N.C. Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

Uma- alingana (Inscribed) : Octo alloy:
12th Century A.D. Find spot. Tapan,
South Dinajpur.
Donor: Siva Sailam, District Magistrate, 
West Dinajpur.

Just like Akshaya Kumar Maitreya, Nirmal Chandra Choudhury was also born in Rajshahi. Nirmal Chandra had immense respect for Akshaya Kumar because he was inspired by the personal collections that are now exhibited in the Barendra Research Museum. Later on Nirmal Kumar also started collecting historical artifacts and the collections that he made between 1964 and 1996 were donated entirely to the University of North Bengal with a precondition that the Museum should be named after Akshaya Kumar Maitreya.
Having been employed in the land revenue department of the Government of West Bengal, Mr. Choudhury had great depth of knowledge on the history of India, especially Bengal. Later he went on to author “ Akshaya Kumar Maitreya: Jiwan O Sadhana” and spent his last days in pandapara, Jalpaiguri.

Next contributor of the museum was Santipriya Roy Choaudhury, who was originally a chief collector in the Railways and his interest in history know no limits. Since he had to move about different places because of his duty, he collected every item as and when possible. He belonged to Faridpur district of undivided Bengal, and later in life, after partition, came to settle down in Malda. He brought with him his personal collections of artifacts, which were kept in the Rajaram museum – named after his grandfather- at Faridpur, now in Bangladesh.

Wooden musk
Rangdhamali, Jalpaiguri.
Donor: Nirmal Chandraq Chowdhury. Jalpaiguri.

Nakshi Katha
Yachi, Gangarampur, South Dinajpur.
Donor : Namita Dutta, S. Dinajpur.

Nakshi Katha
Yachi, Gangarampur, South Dinajpur.
Donor : Namita Dutta, S. Dinajpur.

 Horse: Octo-alloy
Find Spot. Bulbulchandi, Malda.
N.C. Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

Akshaya Kumar Maitreya Museum is rich in artifacts, manuscripts and other items of historical value. More or less all the items are contributed by connoisseurs of historical relics. The museum comprises a couple of rooms full of metal images, stone statues from the post Gupta era, Kushan Coins, Sanskrit, Bengali and Tibetan manuscripts written on handmade paper, terracotta of the Maurya/ Sunga era, painted wooden colourful musks, musical instruments like Sarinda used by Bhawaias, weapons used by Mughal Chieftains and Coochbehar Maharajas, Patachitra or scroll painting, a Huge Canoe collected from Champasari (Siliguri), beautiful embroidered silk quilts or Nakshi Kantha and objects made with cork or bamboo.

The museum has also a library  of comprehensive collection of old and rare books on art , archaeology and musicology. A sculpture of “ Makar-Ganga” carved out of black stone from the Rajmahal hills and a rare icon dating back to the Pala dynasty during the 11th century found in the Kushmadi area at South Dinajpur are among the best artifacts. The museum also boasts of a rare collection of 10 terracotta with 10 incarnation of lord Vishnu carved on them.  rare pieces of Tibetan , Assamese and Bengali manuscripts and around 40 coins dating back to the 18th century also adorn the shelves of the museum.

“The glorious past of North Bengal has not yet been truly  unveiled. Though explored partially, many of the artifacts could not be properly interpreted in writing in the local history of the region. The museum has now become rich repository of collections of sculptures, painting , manuscripts, coins and many other artifacts.

Wooden musk
Rangdhamali, Jalpaiguri.
Donor: Nirmal Chandra Choudhury. Jalpaiguri.

The sculptures in the galleries draw attention to the visitors with its intricate beauties of craftsmanship . Most of the sculptures belong to Pala-Sena school of culture particularly from the period 11th to 12th centuries. Similarly the collections like paintings, terracotta and clay articles, coins masks and other artifacts are of great antic value and useful to the scholars and others in understanding the archaeological history of North Bengal.” as per Mr. Pijushkanti Saha, Vice Chancellor, NBU, 12th March, 2005.**

Traditional Musical instruments of Rava community.

Traditional Musical instruments of Rava community.

Dvarapala( or, Gate-Keeper) (surface effaced) : Sandstone.
15th -16th Century A.D. Find spot-Sitalkuchi,Coochbehar.
Donor : Nirmal Chandra Choudhury.

The Museum.

The museum represents the culture and tradition of North Bengal. Its items are of never ending value to the public and they should carefully preserve for posterity. It is important to know that the museum belongs to one and all and not just the university authorities. Therefore, every citizen must take of its contents because only our tradition, culture and history have held us together.

Sources : 
         1. Akshya Kumar Maitreya Museum incorporating Raja Rajaram Museum
             collection catalogue part-1 & 2  by Sri Pranab Kr. Bhattacharyya
             ( University of N.Bengal and K.P.Bagchi  and Company.).**
         2. Jalpaigurir Purakirti" by Tarapada Santra.
         3. "Banglapedia" (National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Chief editor,
              Mr. Sirajul Islam)*
         4. "University hospital to restore History" The Telegraph, April 23,2008.
         5. "Maharaja missives make it to history home" by Anuradha Lakhotia,
              The Telegraph, July 19, 2003.
         6. "Historical Dictionaries of Bangalies" by Kunal Chakraborty and Subra
         7. Lastly, Mr. Fazlar Rahman, Museum in charge, without his cordial help
             and co-operation , we could not proceed to document this remarkable
             museum. Mr. P. K. Bhattacharyya mentioned in the preface of second 
             edition of museum catalogue, " Mr. Fazlar Rahman, Sr. Technical 
             Assistant, the lone museum worker who work silently and efficiently, 
             making a number of museum publications to see the light, and associating 
             himself with all the activities of the museum and thereby raising the small
             museum to its present stature".**

             Research : Santanu Roy
             Picture Courtesy : Ranadeep Choudhury.